The secondary search yielded 125 articles; with duplicates removed, there were 73 remaining, five of which were new for review. McDonald, Campbell, and Strang (2017) reported that naloxone THKs were being distributed in the early 1990s as a harm reduction strategy in syringe exchange clinics mostly for heroin users in Italy. Sign in, July/September 2018, Volume 29 Number 3 , p 167 - 171, Mortality, A significant limitation of this systematic review is the lack of randomized controlled trials as it is viewed as unethical withholding a known lifesaving medication from an at-risk population. Because of the difficulty of conducting randomized controlled trials, these systematic reviews consist of lower-grade evidence studies throughout. There was one randomized controlled pilot study included, which had to be ceased because of most naloxone administration being used on other people rather than the person it was dispensed to (Parmar et al., 2017). 2016 Jul;111(7):1177-87. doi: 10.1111/add.13326. Opioid overdose is characterized by life-threatening respiratory and central nervous system depression and, if left untreated, may lead to irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death, increasing morbidity and mortality rates (Morrone, 2016). The purpose of this systematic review was to determine if programs that supply take-home naloxone are effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids. Epub 2017 May 25. Systematic review utilizing application of the Bradford Hill criteria. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if programs that supply take-home naloxone (THN) are effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids. (n.d.). Also, Naloxone can reverse the psychotomimetic and dysphoric effects of agonist-antagonists, such as pentazocine.Naloxone is an essentially pure opioid antagonist, i.e., it does not possess the “agonistic” or morphine-like properties characteristic of other opioid antagonists. 8. Exploring the life-saving potential of naloxone: A systematic review and descriptive meta-analysis of take home naloxone (THN) programmes for opioid users. Hospital admissions among people who inject opioids following syringe services program implementation. Epub 2016 Mar 30. Purpose: Increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths-United States, 2010-2015. The goal was to decrease drug-related deaths within the first 4 weeks by 30% and by 20% in Weeks 5-12. A comprehensive literature review was conducted through Academic Search Complete, CINHAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SocINDEX. One of the strongest limitations of this review is not having any studies to include that involve randomization. Wheeler E, Jones TS, Gilbert MK, Davidson PJ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There was no information to indicate that provision of naloxone encouraged the use of heroin. It is an opioid antagonist. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, is an effective method, if used in a timely manner, to reverse the action of opioids and is becoming increasingly available to the public. NLM The only randomized controlled study found for inclusion was on the effectiveness of naloxone in the reduction of opioid overdose deaths, the pilot N-ALIVE study conducted in Scotland and England (Parmar, Strang, Choo, Meade, & Bird, 2017). The impact of take-home naloxone distribution and training on opiate overdose knowledge and response: An evaluation of the THN project in Wales. Naloxone can quickly restore normal breathing to a person if their breathing has slowed or … (2016). According to Parmar et al. Further long-term studies should be completed to strengthen the conclusions of this study. Randomized controlled pilot trial of naloxone-on-release to prevent post-prison opioid overdose deaths. Factors Associated With Participation in an Emergency Department-Based Take-Home Naloxone Program for At-Risk Opioid Users. Statistical power was determined for a sample size at 80% based on evaluation periods of 5 years before the NNP and 3 years after the NNP, with an expectation of 30% and 20% reduction in ORDs, respectively, to the primary and secondary outcomes (Bird et al., 2016). The specific research question being sought to answer is: Are THN programs effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids? There was, however, a 3.5% decrease in mortality due to opioid overdose within the first 4 weeks after prison release (Parmar et al., 2017). This study by McAuley et al. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. – Terms & Conditions – Privacy Policy – Disclaimer -- v7.7.5, Calming the COVID-19 Storm - Q&A Podcast Series, Improving Health through Board Leadership, Profiles in Nursing Leadership: Pathways to Board Membership, Nurses Month May 2020: Week 4 – Community Engagement, Trust and Spheres of Influence: An Interview with Karen Cox, PhD, RN, FACHE, FAAN, Uniting Technology & Clinicians: An Interview with Molly McCarthy, MBA, RN-BC, Where are our N95s? On the basis of the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies were found for inclusion. The following nine criteria are as follows: strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, dose-response relationship, plausibility, coherence, experimental evidence, and analogy. In 2014, there were 47,055 drug overdose deaths recorded in the United States, and of these, 28,647 had opioids involved (Rudd, Seth, David, & Scholl, 2016). 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